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小麥機械化收獲減損技術指導意見

2023-10-12 14:52:17 來源:農業農村部 閱讀量:7450

  (2021年5月修訂)
 
  農業農村部農業機械化管理司 農業農村部農業機械化總站 農業農村部農作物生產全程機械化推進專家指導組
 
  本技術指導意見適用于全喂入聯合收割機的小麥收獲作業。在一定區域內,小麥品種及種植模式應盡量規范一致,作物及田塊條件適于機械化收獲。機手應提前檢查調試好機具,確定適宜收割期,執行小麥機收作業質量標準和操作規程,努力減少收獲環節損失。
 
  一、作業前機具準備
 
  開始作業前要保持機具良好工作狀態,預防和減少作業故障,提高作業質量和效率。
 
  (一)機具檢查
 
  作業季節開始前要依據產品使用說明書對聯合收割機進行一次全面檢查與保養,確保機具在整個收獲期能正常工作。經重新安裝、保養或修理后的小麥聯合收割機要認真做好試運轉,先局部后整體,認真檢查行走、轉向、收割、輸送、脫粒、清選、卸糧等機構的運轉、傳動、操作、間隙等情況,檢查有無異常響聲和三漏情況,發現問題及時解決。要檢查各操縱裝置功能是否正常;離合器、制動踏板自由行程是否適當;發動機機油、冷卻液是否適量;儀表板各指示是否正常;輪胎氣壓是否正常;傳動鏈、張緊輪是否松動或損傷,運動是否靈活可靠;檢查和調整各傳動皮帶的張緊度,防止作業時皮帶打滑;重要部位螺栓、螺母有無松動;有無漏水、滲漏油現象;割臺、機架等部件有無變形等。備足備好田間作業常用工具、零配件、易損零配件及油料等,以便出現故障時能夠及時排除。
 
  (二)試割
 
  正式開始作業前要選擇有代表性的地塊進行試割。試割作業行進長度以30米左右為宜,根據作物、田塊的條件確定適合的收割速度,對照作業質量標準仔細檢查損失、破碎、含雜等情況,有無漏割、堵草、跑糧等異常情況,并以此為依據對割刀間隙、脫粒間隙、篩子開度和(或)風扇風量等視情況進行必要調整。調整后再進行試割并檢測,直至達到質量標準和農戶要求。作物品種、田塊條件有變化要重新試割和調試機具。試割過程中,應注意觀察、傾聽機器工作狀況,發現異常及時解決。
 
  二、確定適宜收獲時間
 
  小麥機收宜在蠟熟末期至完熟初期進行,此時產量最高,品質最好。小麥成熟期主要特征:蠟熟中期下部葉片干黃,莖稈有彈性,籽粒轉黃色,飽滿而濕潤,籽粒含水率25%-30%。蠟熟末期植株變黃,僅葉鞘莖部略帶綠色,莖稈仍有彈性,籽粒黃色稍硬,內含物呈蠟狀,含水率20%-25%。完熟初期葉片枯黃,籽粒變硬,呈品種本色,含水率在20%以下。
 
  確定收獲時間,還要根據當時的天氣情況、品種特性和栽培條件,合理安排收割順序,做到因地制宜、適時搶收,確保顆粒歸倉。小面積收獲宜在蠟熟末期,大面積收獲宜在蠟熟中期,以使大部分小麥在適收期內收獲。留種用的麥田宜在完熟期收獲。如遇雨季迫近,或急需搶種下茬作物,或品種易落粒、折稈、折穗、穗上發芽等情況,應適當提前收獲時間。
 
  三、機收作業質量要求
 
  機收作業時應嚴格按下表中作業質量標準執行。
 
  小麥全喂入聯合收割機作業質量標準

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  四、減少機收環節損失的措施
 
  作業過程中,應選擇適當的作業參數,并根據自然條件和作物條件的不同及時對機具進行調整,使聯合收割機保持良好的工作狀態,減少機收損失,提高作業質量。
 
  (一)選擇作業行走路線
 
  聯合收割機作業一般可采取順時針向心回轉、逆時針向心回轉、梭形收割三種行走方法。在具體作業時,機手應根據地塊實際情況靈活選用。轉彎時應停止收割,將割臺升起,采用倒車法轉彎或兜圈法直角轉彎,不要邊割邊轉彎,以防因分禾器、行走輪或履帶壓倒未割麥子,造成漏割損失。
 
  (二)選擇作業速度
 
  根據聯合收割機自身喂入量、小麥產量、自然高度、干濕程度等因素選擇合理的作業速度。作業過程中應盡量保持發動機在額定轉速下運轉。通常情況下,采用正常作業速度進行收割,盡量避免急加速或急減速。當小麥稠密、植株大、產量高、早晚及雨后作物濕度大時,應適當降低作業速度。
 
  (三)調整作業幅寬
 
  在負荷允許的情況下,控制好作業速度,盡量滿幅或接近滿幅工作,保證作物喂入均勻,防止喂入量過大,影響脫粒質量。當小麥產量高、濕度大或者留茬高度過低時,以低速作業仍超載時,適當減小割幅,一般減少到80%,以保證小麥的收割質量。
 
  (四)保持合適的留茬高度
 
  割茬高度應根據小麥的高度和地塊的平整情況而定,一般以5-15厘米為宜。割茬過高,由于小麥高低不一或機車過田埂時割臺上下波動,易造成部分小麥漏割,同時,撥禾輪的撥禾推禾作用減弱,易造成落地損失。在保證正常收割的情況下,割茬盡量低些,但最低不得小于5厘米,以免切割泥土,加快切割器磨損。
 
  (五)調整撥禾輪速度和位置
 
  調整撥禾輪的轉速,使撥禾輪線速度為聯合收割機前進速度的1.1-1.2倍,不宜過高。撥禾輪高低位置應使撥禾板作用在被切割作物2/3處為宜,其前后位置應視作物密度和倒伏程度而定,當作物植株密度大并且倒伏時,適當前移,以增強扶禾能力。撥禾輪轉速過高、位置偏高或偏前,都易增加穗頭籽粒脫落,使作業損失增加。
 
  (六)調整脫粒、清選等工作部件
 
  脫粒滾筒的轉速、脫粒間隙和導流板角度的大小,是影響小麥脫凈率、破碎率的重要因素。在保證破碎率不超標的前提下,可通過適當提高脫粒滾筒的轉速,減小滾筒與凹板之間的間隙,正確調整入口與出口間隙之比(應為4∶1)等措施,提高脫凈率,減少脫粒損失。清選損失和含雜率是對立的,調整中要統籌考慮。在保證含雜率不超標的前提下,可通過適當減小風扇風量、調大篩子的開度及提高尾篩位置等,減少清選損失。作業中要經常檢查逐稿器機箱內秸稈堵塞情況,及時清理,軸流滾筒可適當減小喂入量和提高滾筒轉速,以減少分離損失。對于清選結構上有排草擋板的,在含雜、損失較高時,可通過調整排草板上下高度減少損失。
 
  (七)收割倒伏作物
 
  適當降低割茬,以減少漏割;撥禾輪適當前移,撥禾彈齒后傾15-30度,或者安裝專用的扶禾器,以增強扶禾作用。倒伏較嚴重的作物,采取逆倒伏方向收獲、降低作業速度或減少喂入量等措施。
 
  (八)收割過熟作物
 
  小麥過度成熟時,莖稈過干易折斷、麥粒易脫落,脫粒后碎莖稈增加易引起清選困難,收割時應適當調低撥禾輪轉速,防止撥禾輪板擊打麥穗造成掉粒損失,同時降低作業速度,適當調整清選篩開度,也可安排在早晨或傍晚莖稈韌性較大時收割。
 
  (九)規范作業操作
 
  作業時應根據作物品種、高度、產量、成熟程度及秸稈含水率等情況來選擇作業擋位,用作業速度、割茬高度及工作幅寬來調整喂入量,使機器在額定負荷下工作,盡量降低夾帶損失,避免發生堵塞故障。要經常檢查凹板篩和清選篩的篩面,防止被泥土或潮濕物堵死造成糧食損失,如有堵塞要及時清理。
 
  (十)在線監測
 
  如有條件,可在收割機上裝配損失率、含雜率、破碎率在線監測裝置,駕駛員根據在線監測裝置提示的相關指標、曲線,適時調整作業速度、喂入量、留茬高度等作業狀態參數,得到并保持損失率、含雜率、破碎率較理想的作業狀態。
 
  五、培訓與監督
 
  機手、種植戶和從事收獲質量監督的鄉鎮農機管理人員應經過培訓,掌握小麥品種、籽粒含水率、種植模式、收割地形等方面的知識,掌握收割機的正確使用、維護保養知識以及作業質量標準要求。鼓勵種植戶與機手簽訂收獲作業損失協議,農機管理人員可通過巡回檢查監督作業損失等情況,并在損失偏大或出現其他不合乎要求情形時,要求機手調整,仍然不合要求的,應更換作業機器。

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